year 12, Issue 1 (Spring 2022)                   E.E.R. 2022, 12(1): 160-182 | Back to browse issues page

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roushannasab F, Mirzaei M, Khazaei M. Effects of Tree Shear Strength on River Stability (Reach of BESHAR River). E.E.R.. 2022; 12 (1) :160-182
URL: http://magazine.hormozgan.ac.ir/article-1-605-en.html
Forest-Rangeland and Watershed Management Department, Faculty of Agriculture & Natural Resources, Yasouj University, Yasouj, Iran , mmirzaei@yu.ac.ir
Abstract:   (233 Views)
 
  1. Introduction
So much of the river sediment occurrs due to bank erosion. Understanding and predicting bank erosion is a vital requirement for river management. During  a  flood, river flow shear stress exceeds river bank materials shear strength and causes a meandering. To prevent a river accresion in a floodplain, it is necessary to understand the river and perform river management and organization operations, especially in erosion reaches. Bank erosion occurs commonly during a relatively long reaches of the river. Due to the high cost, stabilization practices are only possible locally. In order to reduce this phenomenon, it is necessary to create vegetation in river reaches. The Bank Stability and Toe Erosion (BSTEM) model is one of the most widely used models in the world in most river engineering projects developed by the National Sediment Laboratory in Oxford, Mississippi, USA. The BSTEM model was initiallly developed by Pallen Benkhead and Simon to investigate riverbank stability under vegetation and water conditions. Subsequently, in BESTEM model, various plant and hydraulic parameters such as slope patterns, roughness, angle, and pore water pressure are used. BSTEM is a bank erosion model that examines hydraulic processes, toe erosion and bank failure in soil homogeneous layers and is a suitable tool for determining riverbank conditions in order to protect river from streamflow erosion. A review of the research studies conducted in this regard showed that although the BSTEM model is a model with a long history and validity (based on numerous projects, articles and dissertations) and had been used in different countries and important rivers of the world to study the stability and bank erosion. In Iran, few studies have been done on the BSTEM model, which shows the need to conuct further studies for the purpose of validating this model. Therefore, this study was designed using the BSTEM model to investigate the stability of the river bank with respect to existing plant species in a section of the Bashar River in the city of Yasuj.
  1. Methodology
In this study, the Bank Stability and Toe Erosion (BSTEM) model has been used to investigate the stability of the reach of Bashar River in Kohgiluyeh and BoyerAhmad Province. This model is one of the most comprehensive models used for river engineering and management operations in the world, which besides stability, the failure rate, safety factor, erosion rate, sediment loading rate, and river accrestion rate are calculated. The appropriate reaches of the Bashar River for modeling, should have the same characteristics in terms of morphology, geology, land use and have a suitable length (300 meters). The study was condcuted by analyzing two parts: control (without cover, length = 300 meter) and experimental (with cover, length = 300 meter). Because of using the BSTEM model, it has been necessary to select several sections in the selected range. For this purpose, topographic maps and aerial photographs of the area were prepared. Then, with the help of these maps and Google Earth satellite images, a reach of the Bashar River was selected near the Darshahi region for modeling. Then, the selected reach was divided into two parts: control (without cover) and experimental (with cover) with the same length of 300 meters, and each part was divided into 3 sections of 100 meters. Shear strength of tree species was measured in cross-sections. The reserachers performed data comparison analysis with HEC-RAS software and BSTEM model.
  1. Results
The results of flood simulation in the HEC-RAS model in section 1 with cover reach and section 4 without cover reach showed that, in a 2-year flood, the average flow velocity in the middle of the cross section is 2.18 and 1.41 m/s, respectively (the estimated speed of the HEC-RAS model), and the flow height were 1.39 and 2.72 meters, respectively. The results of this study also showed that in terms of stability, there is a difference between sections with land cover (Fs <1) and no cover land (Fs <1). The results also pointed to the fact that the average width and volume of failure of the river bank in the no land cover section was 2.72 meters and 6280 cubic meters, respectively, and in the land cover section was 1.42 meters and 1686.33 cubic meters.
  1. Discussion & Conclusion
The results showed that in terms of stability, there is a significant difference between covered and no covered sections because of the safety factor, which confirmed the instability of the studied reach. Based on the results of uncovered sections, due to fact that their geometric condition are unstable, the need for river management operations intesifies. The results showed that for sections with vegetation, the safety factor is higher than one, which indicated the bank stability in the studied reach, while in sections of no cover, the river is unstable. Increasing tensile crack depth, and bank angle resulted in bank instability, and increasing river flow level, groundwater level and suction matrix can lead to bank stability. In order to prevent bank river erosion, cultivation and growth of plants that are compatible with the climate and the erosive conditions are necessary. Therefore, it is suggested that native plants and other various plant forms be used to prevent bank river erosion. In addition, comparative studies need to be performed on other species in order to determie the role of plant cover on river bank stability in other rivers.
 
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Received: 2021/03/19 | Published: 2022/03/12

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