year 11, Issue 3 (Autumn 2021)                   E.E.R. 2021, 11(3): 44-63 | Back to browse issues page

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biniaz M, azarnivand H, feiznia S, ghourchi M. Assessment of environmental sustainability due to mining activities in the ecosystems of western Hormozgan (Case study: Paytaveh Bastak gypsum mine and factory). E.E.R.. 2021; 11 (3) :44-63
Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Tehran ,
Abstract:   (305 Views)
Extended abstract
1- Introduction
The Earth's environment and ecosystem is an extensive and complex set of different components and factors that have been formed as a result of the gradual evolution of living organisms and the components of the Earth's surface. This collection includes nature and all living things. As one of these beings and a part of the environment, man is affected by nature and is also affected by it. This effect, which manifests itself in various forms, is mainly due to the various activities. From the past until now, nature has been used and exploited in multiple ways. As a result of this impact on the environment, it has mainly manifested itself in the form of degradation and has increased in recent decades for various reasons. This issue means that the increasing trend of exploitation of nature, due to the intensity and nature, causes various concerns that manifest themselves in the form of ambiguities and essential questions. In the general case (exploitation of nature), the general and key questions are what mechanism follows this growing process of exploitation of nature, to what extent it is correct and logical, and the primary purpose of this exploitation?
One of the forms (types) of use and exploitation of nature globally and in Iran is mining activity. Naturally, the general and key questions raised above, both in general and in the discussion of specific uses (here mining activity) can be examined and explored. However, in recent years, this activity can be examined in various situations (in terms of exploitation intensity and increasing mining trend. But it seems that a general explanation and the nature of the action and activity, not based on the intensity of activity, also has sufficient credibility and an excellent position. Is. However, as stated, the purpose is to investigate basically and in general the relationship between nature exploitation in Iran in the form of mining activities with nature? Basically, in this regard, the only and always the aforementioned goal in such industrial (economic) activities, or does nature itself have a place and importance in this? This study aims to provide an appropriate answer to the key question that to what extent economic activities and exploitation of nature, mining here, are in line with nature's capacity and follow the principles of sustainable development? In summary, the present study seeks to properly assess the environmental sustainability or instability of mining activities and, in this regard, the degree of proportionality between the positive (mainly economic) and negative (mainly environmental) effects on the environment of residents in affected areas. To become clear.
2- Methodology
    In summary, the recent research was carried out in several stages as follows: In the first stage, based on the nature of the issue and attention to factors such as the proximity of the mine to residential areas and people, as well as the importance of different factors affecting the mine and Bastak area and In particular, Paytaveh gypsum mine was designated for research. In the next step, general and specialized questionnaires were designed by considering different aspects of my impact. A general questionnaire for surveying the general public and, in fact, residents of areas adjacent to the mine, and a specialized questionnaire for obtaining more technical and comprehensive data and information from relevant experts (environment, natural resources, industry, and mining), environmental activists and villagers and responsible people in that village. Paytaveh village) was designed and used for use in the final tables of the evaluation method (RIAM method). In the last step, these data and scores, and status classes were used to determine the environmental stability or instability of the mine in a method called the Phillips method.
3- Results 
    As mentioned in the research method, the raw information and data extracted from the opinions of different people were used to score and determine the status of various factors. The results showed that among the 15 factors studied in this study, 7 factors have a negative effect, 5 factors have a neutral effect (ineffective), and 3 factors (all in the category of economic factors) have a positive effect. Meanwhile, socio-cultural factors did not affect, and all four factors in this category were completely neutral and ineffective. By placing the numbers in the said formulas, the final number S in the Phillips formula was determined to be zero. Therefore, according to the classification, the resulting number, zero, is in the instability range. In simpler terms, the calculations show that the mining project is considered unstable and has led to environmental instability.
4- Discussion & Conclusions
    The Phillips method was used to investigate and determine the environmental stability or instability due to mining activity in the Paytaveh Bastak area based on information obtained from the RIAM method. The results showed that this project has different effects in the study area. ‌‌‌But in general, the result of the effects indicates the dominance of negative effects over positive effects, and as a result, the environment caused by these effects is unstable. Finally, there is a key issue to consider: the balance between the benefits of mining and its environmental impact is essential to achieving sustainable exploitation of mineral resources. Although the results showed that in the study area, there is no balance between the positive and negative effects of mining activity, but the evaluation and analysis of the views of residents show that the efforts of miners to increase the weight of positive effects (mainly economic: employment of villagers in mining and cooperation with villagers in to carry out the necessary construction and infrastructure activities of the residents) will help increase the satisfaction of the residents and at least in the short term the continuation of the project will be acceptable from the residents' point of view and will lead to relative relative positive effects in the short term (employment and income for residents). Development and essential infrastructure of residents) will help increase residents' satisfaction, and at least in the short term, the continuation of the project will be acceptable to residents. It will lead to the relative maintenance of tangible positive effects in the short term (employment and income for residents. However, the use of the word sustainability and especially sustainable development for this activity in general and in this region will not have a proper scientific and logical aspect. In short, mining, as one of the main pillars in many developed and developing countries has always faced many economic, social, and environmental challenges concerning its stakeholders. This has led mining companies to pay more attention to better interact with their stakeholders in recent decades. Therefore, achieving sustainable development has become one of the industry's priorities. This key issue will be achieved only if the exploiters try to increase the positive effects, reduce the negative effects of mining and generally pay attention to the demands of the residents of the adjacent areas of the mine, as the main stakeholders, to improve their quality of life and environmental concerns. Perhaps only then will it be appropriate and effective to talk about the environmental sustainability of mining activities in such areas.
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Received: 2021/06/2 | Published: 2021/09/23

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